The 2019 Atlantic hurricane season was a below-average season, producing 13 tropical depressions, of which 10 became tropical storms, 5 became hurricanes, and 3 became major hurricanes (Category 3 or higher on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale). The season officially began on June 1, 2019, and ended on November 30, 2019. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Atlantic basin.
The below average activity is attributed to a weak El Niño, which makes the Atlantic less favorable for tropical cyclone formation. The El Niño began forming over the winter of 2018-19 after ENSO-Neutral conditions during 2018. Since the El Niño was only weak, three storms were still allowed favorable enough conditions to intensify to a major hurricane. These storms; Dorian, Fernand, and Gabrielle; were also the most destructive storms of the season. Dorian tracked through the Caribbean, causing destruction around the area. Fernand and Gabrielle both tracked north of the Lesser Antilles and struck the United States East Coast. However, Fernand stuck the region around New York City, while Gabrielle struck the Carolinas. Gabrielle became among the strongest hurricanes on record in the Atlantic, reaching a peak of 180 mph and 896 mbar. It was even more unusual in that it was outside the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean, where storms that strong are more likely to occur. All three names were retired for destruction, making it one of the largest ratios for retired names vs. total named storms this season. Among other storms, Andrea, Barry, Jerry, Tropical Depression Four, and Tropical Depression Seven also caused significant land impacts, but they were not nearly as destructive as the three major hurricanes.
The 2019 season officially began on June 1, 2019. June began quiet, and remained quiet until the first storm, Andrea, formed on June 21 in the Gulf of Mexico. Andrea struck the Texas-Louisiana region, causing some damage. July saw three storms develop; Tropical Storm Barry, Hurricane Chantal, and Tropical Depression Four. Barry struck the east coast of Florida during the early part of the month. Chantal developed late in the month and was a Category 2 that did not affect land. Four struck the Florida Panhandle region at the end of the month.
August saw the season's first major hurricane, and two other systems. Dorian formed in the early part of the month, and was a Category 4 that tracked through the Caribbean, affecting several land areas. Dorian caused enough damage to warrant the retirement of the name, being replaced by Darren for the 2025 season. The second August storm, Erin, was a tropical storm that did not affect land. Tropical Depression Seven concluded the month by existing in the Bay of Campeche.
September saw the formation of only two storms. However, both storms were major hurricanes and were destructive enough to be retired. The first September storm, Fernand, was a Category 4 that tracked from Cape Verde all the way to New Jersey. The damage in New Jersey was enough to retire the name; the replacement for 2025 is Ferris. In mid-September, Gabrielle developed near the Lesser Antilles, and reached its peak at Category 5 strength before striking the Carolina region in the late part of the month. Gabrielle was the strongest of the season, and among the strongest in Atlantic history. Due to destruction in the southeast United States and surrounding areas, the name was retired and was replaced by Giselle for 2025.
In October, three storms formed, including one tropical depression. The other two were tropical storms. The first storm of the month, Humberto, formed in the early part of October and did not affect land, except for some impacts in Bermuda. The second storm was Imelda, which formed in the Main Development Region, and that storm did not affect land either. The final October storm was a tropical depression that formed north of Bermuda and tracked north towards Nova Scotia before dissipating.
The final storm, Jerry, formed in November. It was a Category 2 that formed in the western Caribbean, and tracked towards Honduras and the Yucatan, and later reached the United States Gulf Coast as a weaker storm. Jerry concluded this below average, but destructive season.
A tropical disturbance formed on June 19 and caught the NHC's attention. It formed into a tropical depression on June 21, becoming Tropical Storm Andrea soon afterward. Andrea had relatively favorable conditions in its path, allowing intensification to 50 mph/996 mbar before it made landfall near Galveston, Texas on June 23. Andrea weakened quickly before dissipating that night. Andrea caused $34 million in damage and killed 3 people.
A tropical disturbance began developing on July 2 north of the Turks & Caicos Islands. On the same day, the NHC began monitoring this disturbance for potential development. A few days later, on July 5th, the disturbance became Tropical Depression Two. Two intensified to Tropical Storm Barry twelve hours later. Barry was bringing locally heavy rain and high winds to many areas in the northern Bahamas. The NHC forecast track had it as a threat to Florida, so a tropical storm warning was issued for the eastern coastline from West Palm Beach to Jacksonville, and a TS watch extended down to south of Miami and up to the Georgia coastline. Barry intensifed slightly to its peak of 45 mph and 998 mbar, and it made landfall near Palm Bay, Florida very early on July 7. Barry weakened to a tropical depression over land, but remained a tropical depression as it briefly crossed into the Gulf of Mexico later that day. The storm made a second landfall in the Florida Panhandle region, and dissipated for good early on July 8th. Barry is responsible for $86 million in damage and 5 deaths, mainly due to flooding.
A strong tropical wave crossed the African coast and entered the Atlantic on July 20. Initially, development looked unlikely, but a burst of convection within the wave and model runs prompted the NHC to began monitoring it on July 22. A low pressure center was detected to be developing on July 23, and advisories were initiated on Tropical Depression Three on July 25. Six hours later, the depression strengthened to Tropical Storm Chantal. Conditions were expected to allow for the gradual intensification of Chantal over the coming days, and the NHC forecast track predicted a potential hurricane. Chantal turned northward and intensified to a hurricane on July 27. It strengthened further to Category 2 strength early on July 28 as it turned a little more west, and reached its peak of 105 mph and 972 mbar later that day. After this point, conditions were expected to become less favorable, with cool waters and wind shear prevailing. Chantal weakened to a Category 1 on July 29 and turned towards the northeast. The storm was down to tropical storm strength on July 30 and it dissipated on July 31, while situated far east of Bermuda. Chantal did not affect land, so it didn't cause damage or deaths.
The NHC began monitoring a disturbance on July 28 near Florida. Development was not expected at first due to wind shear, but the disturbance unexpectedly organized and was up to a high chance of development by the night of July 29. It became a tropical depression on July 30, but significant strengthening was not expected due to the wind shear and land interaction. Four failed to intensify beyond TD strength, and made landfall on the Florida Panhandle early on July 31. The depression quickly dissipated and was a remnant low later that day. Four caused minimal damage and no deaths.
On July 31, a tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa. It was well-organized and predicted to move into favorable conditions, prompting the NHC to begin monitoring it on August 1. The tropical wave developed into a tropical depression on August 3 and was given the Five designation. Six hours later, the depression strengthened to a tropical storm, earning the name "Dorian". Dorian retained tropical storm status for a bit. It finally strengthened to a hurricane late on August 6, and reached its initial peak of 85 mph and 986 mbar before it entered a region of wind shear. Its convection was sheared to the northeast while it weakened to a tropical storm on August 8. The storm blew through the Windward Islands soon afterward, and entered the Caribbean. Dorian bottomed out at 50 mph, and then entered favorable conditions. With warm waters, low wind shear, and a lack of dry air, conditions were forecast to be favorable for potentially rapid strengthening to take place. Dorian restrengthened to a hurricane on August 10, while entering the Central Caribbean. Early on August 11, Dorian intensified to a Category 2; a well-defined eye began forming at this point. The storm was a major hurricane later that day, but strengthening slowed from this point on. On August 12, Dorian strengthened to a Category 4 hurricane. It was now threatening the Yucatan and its outskirts affected Jamaica. Yucatan residents were advised to prepare for potentially insane destruction as Dorian reached its peak intensity of 145 mph and 936 mbar on August 13. An eye-wall replacement cycle weakened Dorian to a Category 3 once it made landfall on the peninsula during the evening of August 14. The storm rapidly weakened and got disorganized over land, emerging into the Bay of Campeche as a tropical storm with a ragged apparence. Warm waters and favorable conditions resulted in Dorian quickly reorganizing, and it strengthened back into a hurricane and later a Category 2. It reached a secondary peak of 105 mph and 974 mbar before it made landfall near Veracruz on August 17. This would prove to be the final fate of Dorian. Mexico's mountains destroyed the storm's circulation and it dissipated that night. Dorian is responsible for causing a total of $879 million in damage and 154 deaths, mainly caused by flooding and mudslides, as well as wind damage. The name Dorian was later retired for its destruction and was replaced by Darren for the 2025 season.
A tropical wave was producing a widespread area of disorganized convection during mid-August. A low pressure center developed within the wave, prompting the NHC to monitor it. They noted that unfavorable conditions in its path meant that the area had only a small window to develop. The area reached tropical depression status on August 17 with the "Six" designation. After 12 hours, the depression strengthened into a tropical storm, being named "Erin". Significant strengthening was not expected as it was moving north into more hostile conditions. Erin's peak was only 45 mph, and 1000 mbar. After that, strong wind shear took its toll on Erin, weakening it to a tropical depression very soon after its peak intensity. Erin dissipated only a day after formation while in the Central Atlantic. Erin did not cause damage or deaths, since it didn't affect land.
A tropical wave was moving through the Caribbean during late August before moving ashore on the Yucatan Peninsula on August 26. The wave was getting well-organized, prompting the NHC to monitor it. Conditions in the Bay of Campeche were expected to be favorable for the wave to develop. A low pressure center developed on August 27 as it entered the Bay of Campeche, and chances for developing increased. On August 28, the area developed into Tropical Depression Seven. By that point, the storm was close to land, so it had a very slim chance to become a named storm before landfall. Seven failed to strengthen before it made landfall in the Veracruz region and dissipated over Mexico's terrain. Seven caused minimal damage, but 2 flooding deaths.
A well-organized tropical wave rushed off the coast of Africa on August 30. The tropical wave showed signs of organization the next day while near Cape Verde, prompting the NHC to began monitoring it. After favorable conditions continued to help the wave organize, it developed into a tropical depression on September 2 and was given the desgination Eight. The depression intensified to a tropical storm twelve hours later, earning the name "Fernand". Fernand had favorable conditions anticipated throughout its path, so the NHC put a hurricane in its forecast for Fernand. Late on September 4, the forecast came true as Fernand intensified into a hurricane out in the central Atlantic. The storm continued tracking westward with continued intensification; Category 2 late on September 5, Category 3 by midday on September 6, and a Category 4 on September 7. Fernand peaked at 150 mph and 933 mbar on September 8. Fernand under-went an eyewall replacement cycle, weakening Fernand to a Category 3 on September 9. At this point, residents of New England and the upper east coast were advised to prepare for what could be a potentially devastating storm. A hurricane warning was issued for the region, and all watches and warnings related to Fernand extended from North Carolina up to Massachusetts. On September 10, it weakened to a Category 2, and was a Category 1 by that night. Fernand was a large system at this point, with tropical storm force winds extending far from the center. Fernand made landfall in New Jersey on the 18th anniversary of 9/11, a coincidence. Over land, Fernand quickly weakened and became extratropical later that day. In total, Fernand is responsible for $56 billion dollars in damage (2019 USD) and 114 deaths. The name was later retired, and was replaced by Ferris for the 2020 season.
A tropical wave developed a low pressure area on September 12, prompting the NHC to begin monitoring it. It was a tropical depression two days later, on the 14th. After twelve hours, the depression intensified into a tropical storm, earning the name "Gabrielle". When it was named, Gabrielle was affecting the northern Windward Islands and pounding the region with heavy rain and TS-force winds. The storm strengthened slightly and was at 60 mph when it turned northwestward and passed near Puerto Rico. In the region, Gabrielle caused slight damage and proved to be deadly, with 2 deaths attributed to Gabrielle due to flooding and wind. On September 17, Gabrielle intensified to a hurricane as it was beginning to move away from the region. Early on the 18th, the storm intensifed to a C2 as it encountered favorable conditions. Gabrielle intensified further into a Category 3 major and reached its initial peak of 120 mph/963 mbar before the storm got stuck in a ridge, causing wind shear to weaken Gabrielle to a Category 1 and perform a loop. After turning westward, Gabrielle encountered another haven of favorable conditions, which were perfect for quick intensification. After just 2 days, Gabrielle intensified from a Category 1 to a Category 5. Early on September 24, Gabrielle reached its powerful peak intensity of 180 mph and 896 mbar. A hurricane warning was in full effect along the Carolina coast, with watches and warnings extended further along the coastlines. Gabrielle was expected to be potentially devastating. Early on September 27, Gabrielle made landfall close to the border of South and North Carolina as a Category 2, after weakening due to an eyewall replacement cycle earlier. The storm dissipated over land by the next morning. In total, Gabrielle caused $28 billion dollars in damage and 47 deaths, due to striking a slightly less populated region than Fernand did and being smaller in size at landfall. The name was later retired for destruction, and was replaced by Giselle in the 2025 season.
A tropical disturbance developed far north of Hispaniola on October 1, associated with a tropical wave and upper-level low. After a couple days of organization, the disturbance developed into Tropical Depression Ten on October 3. It became a tropical storm and was assigned the name Humberto the next day. While it became named, Humberto was producing minor impacts in Bermuda. Humberto moved northeast out to sea and reached its peak of 60 mph and 994 mbar early on October 5. Afterward, wind shear and cooler waters took a toll on the storm. Humberto became extratropical early on October 6. It caused minimal damage in Bermuda, and no deaths were reported.
A tropical wave was first noted coming off the coast of Africa, on October 18. The wave organized as it moved into a relatively favorable environment, particularly for the time of year. This prompted the NHC to begin monitoring it for development. The wave had a small window to develop before conditions became unfavorable by October 22. The wave developed into a tropical depression on October 21, earning the designation "11". The depression strengthened into a tropical storm 12 hours later, earning the name "Imelda". The storm formed near the end of the window, so any strengthening was unlikely to occur. It weakened to a tropical depression on October 22 as it continued moving slowly westward. Imelda dissipated that night. The storm didn't cause damage or deaths.
A upper-level low formed near Bermuda on October 26 and organized. The low pressure area developed into a tropical depression two days later, on October 28, as it moved northward. The depression was not expected to significantly intensify due to undesirable conditions (such as wind shear). Tropical Depression Twelve dissipated the next day south of Nova Scotia. The depression didn't cause damage or deaths.
A tropical wave was first noted by the NHC on November 4 in the central Caribbean. It was mentioned in their Tropical Weather Outlook that the tropical wave would enter favorable conditions for development. After it moved into the western Caribbean on November 6, the wave significantly organized, and was up to a high chance of development. It became the thirteenth and final tropical depression of the season the next day. After twelve hours, the depression strengthened to a tropical storm, earning the name "Jerry". Jerry moved westward and reached its initial peak of 60 mph before making a landfall in eastern Honduras late on November 9. Land interaction weakened Jerry to a tropical depression as it brought destructive rainfall in the region, bringing mudslides and floods that killed many people. After performing a loop and turning back into the Caribbean, Jerry restrengthened to a tropical storm. It moved generally westward in the western Caribbean, before turning north and strengthening to a Category 1 late on November 11. On the 12th, Jerry strengthened to a Category 2 and reached its peak strength by the night. At this point, Yucatan residents were taking precautionary measures to prepare for Jerry. Undesirable environmental conditions weakened Jerry to a Category 1 before its landfall on November 13. Land interaction weakened Jerry down to tropical depression strength by the time it emerged into the Gulf of Mexico. Jerry, now a disorganized mess, was still expected to re-intensify due to more favorable conditions in its path (despite lingering weak wind shear). Late on November 14, Jerry restrengthened to a tropical storm. Its secondary peak of 45 mph/999 mbar was reached on November 15. On November 16, Jerry moved through the Louisiana delta before crashing into Mississippi as a dying tropical storm. The storm quickly dissipated that night. Throughout its path, Jerry caused $794 million in damage and 43 deaths. The damage and deaths were mainly in Central America and in the Yucatan. In the United States, little damage and no deaths were reported. The name Jerry was not retired and remains on 2025's list.
The following names were used for named storms that formed in the northern Atlantic Ocean during 2019. Retired names were announced by the World Meteorological Organization in the spring of 2020. The names not retired from this list will be used again in the 2025 season. This is the same list used in the 2013 season, except for the name Imelda, which replaced Ingrid after it caused destruction in Mexico.
In the spring of 2020, the World Meteorological Organization announced the retirement of the names Dorian, Fernand, and Gabrielle due to the extensive devastation all three storms caused. They were replaced by Darren, Ferris, and Giselle respectively.
This is a table of the storms and their effects in the 2019 Atlantic hurricane season. This table includes the storm's names, duration, peak intensity, areas affected, damages, and death totals. Damage and deaths include totals while the storm was extratropical, a wave or a low. All of the damage figures are in 2019 USD (the listed damage figure is in millions).