The 2014 Atlantic hurricane season was the second-most active Atlantic hurricane season in history to the 2005 season in terms of named storms. It featured 24 tropical cyclones, all of which were named storms, 16 hurricanes (which set a record), and 9 major hurricanes (which also set a record). It had more Accumulated Cyclone Energy than the 2005 season and is recognized as the most active according to this measure. Its record activity was caused by unusually low wind shear and warm sea surface temperatures from an extremely rare Very Strong Modoki El Nino event.
Notable storms of the season included Hurricane Arthur, an early-season category 4 that brushed the East Coast of the US, Hurricane Kyle, an extremely deadly storm that made landfall in south Texas, and Hurricane Teddy, the first November Atlantic Category 5 hurricane since 1932 and the strongest Atlantic hurricane on record.
The season was initially not expected to be active due to the predicted development of a strong El Nino event. In December, Tropical Storm Risk (TSR) released the first forecast, projecting a near-normal season. By April, it appeared as if an El Nino would develop, so most forecasting agencies began to predict a below-normal season. NOAA predicted 8-13 named storms, 3-6 hurricanes and 1-2 major hurricanes in late May. Despite Hurricane Arthur's formation, forecasts still trended to a below-normal season due to the El Nino projected to develop. However, the El Nino instead developed into a Strong Modoki-type El Nino, which lowered wind shear and made Atlantic sea surface temperatures the warmest in decades. In August, NOAA revised their prediction to predict a well above average season. Even the revised predictions were too low, however, as no prediction came close to the 24 named storms, 16 hurricanes and 9 major hurricanes that developed.
The 2014 season started early, with Tropical Depression One forming on May 28 and later developing into Hurricane Arthur. Arthur would peak as a category 4 hurricane off the coast of the Outer Banks of North Carolina. Although Arthur did not make a direct landfall, it still caused 17 deaths and over $1 billion in damage. Arthur dissipated on June 8, shortly after becoming extratropical. Less than a week after Arthur dissipated, Tropical Storm Bertha developed in the Gulf Of Mexico, and made landfall in Mississippi, becoming one of the deadliest and costliest tropical storms to hit the state, causing 14 deaths and approximately $500 million in damages. The tropical activity continued after Bertha dissipated on June 17, with Hurricane Cristobal forming in late June and reaching Category 3 status in the eastern Atlantic. Cristobal caused one indirect death and minimal damage in the Cape Verde Islands and the Azores islands.
Several days after Cristobal dissipated, a tropical wave near the Lesser Antilles was named Tropical Depression Four. Four would later grow into Tropical Storm Dolly and eventually Hurricane Dolly. Dolly peaked as a high-end category 1 hurricane, and caused 38 deaths and $1.4 billion in damages. Dolly would cause torrential rains in the Bahamas before eventually making landfall in the southern Outer Banks of North Carolina. No fatalities occurred from Dolly in the United States. Due to the Brown Ocean effect Dolly eventually reached Kentucky, the first time in many years that a fully tropical system passed over Kentucky. Later in the month, Subtropical Storm Edouard formed near Spain and took a track similar to that of Hurricane Vince in 2005, making landfall in Spain as a subtropical depression. At the end of the month, Tropical Storm Fay made landfall in Florida before weakening to a depression and eventually becoming a category 1 hurricane off the coast of North Carolina.
Hurricane Fay dissipated on August 3 as it became extratropical. That same day, a new tropical wave exited the African coast. The tropical wave was upgraded to Tropical Depression Seven on August 5 and Tropical Storm Gonzalo on August 6. Gonzalo would eventually intensify into a category 5 hurricane and cause heavy rains near Bermuda while still a category 4 hurricane. While Gonzalo was still active, a new tropical wave developed near the Lesser Antilles and organized itself into Tropical Storm Hanna on August 16. Hanna later intensified into a category 2 hurricane and made two separate landfalls in the Yucatan Peninusula and southern Mexico. Hanna caused only one fatality and $20 million in damage, much milder than what was anticipated from the storm. Meahwile, Gonzalo became extratropical on August 20. Tropical Storm Isaias formed late in the month, but didn't last long due to wind shear and dry air.
On September 3, Tropical Depression Ten formed, which would later develop into Hurricane Josephine, a strong category 4 hurricane with maximum sustained winds of 155 mph. Josephine was a Cape Verde-type hurricane, but would take a rather unusual path, hitting Spain nearly as a tropical cyclone, the second storm of the year to do so. On September 5, Tropical Storm Kyle formed, which would later become a category 5 hurricane and make landfall in Texas. Kyle caused 868 fatalities and $95 billion in damage - becoming the second costliest Atlantic hurricane on record to Katrina. In mid-September, Tropical Storm Laura formed well east of Cape Verde and caused minimal damage to the islands, however, Laura did not cause any deaths. Late in the month, Hurricane Marco formed and reached Category 3 hurricane intensity east of Bermuda, causing one indirect fatality. Simulatenously, Hurricane Nana made landfall in Florida on September 30, causing minor to moderate damage, and even affecting the Walt Disney World Resort.
Early in the month, Marco and Nana dissipated, occurring on October 1 and 2, respectively. On October 5, Subtropical Storm Omar developed and later became fully tropical, while causing minimal, if any, land impact. On October 10, Tropical Depression Sixteen formed, which later developed into Hurricane Paulette, a Cape Verde-type hurricane that became the first subtropical storm with hurricane-force winds since 1979. Later in the month, Tropical Storm Omar formed near the Bahamas and caused heavy rains throughout the islands, killing four people. Simultaneously, Subtropical Depression Eighteen formed off the coast of North Carolina, and struggled to intensify initially before becoming Hurricane Sally at a very high latitude. On October 24, Tropical Depression Nineteen developed east of the Lesser Antilles, and briefly became Tropical Storm Teddy before degenerating into a remnant low. However, Teddy regenerated into a Tropical Storm on October 29. On Halloween, Teddy underwent rapid intensification and became the strongest Atlantic hurricane in history. By late that night, Teddy was a low-end Category 5 hurricane.
Hurricane Teddy then acquired its peak intensity on November 1st, becoming the first Category 5 November hurricane since 1932, and the strongest Atlantic hurricane on record. Teddy peaked with 195 mph winds (an Atlantic record), as well as a pressure of 880 mbar (another Atlantic record). On November 6, Tropical Storm Vicky developed from an extratropical cyclone in the central Atlantic, but rapidly dissipated on November 8. Late in the month, unusual Hurricane Wilfred nearly became a major hurricane and made landfall on Thanksgiving Day in central New Jersey, causing extensive damage to the New Jersey Boardwalks as well as the worst Black Friday sales since the 1970s.
The season's activity continued into December, after hurricane season officially ended. On December 2, Tropical Depression Twenty-Two formed in the central Atlantic, which would later develop into Hurricane Alpha, an off-season major hurricane, the first in history. Alpha dissipated on December 8th. Later in the month, Hurricane Beta formed out of a Cape Verde tropical wave - an extremely unusual occurrence for December - and became the record 16th hurricane of the season. On December 27, Subtropical Depression Twenty-Four developed east of the Bahamas and later made landfall in Georgia as Subtropical Storm Gamma, becoming an unusual storm that spanned two calendar years. Gamma was the record third Atlantic subtropical or tropical cyclone in the month of December. The ACE record for December was also shattered, with the three named storms, two hurricanes and one major hurricane forming.
On May 25, a non-tropical low developed off the coast of Florida. This low was stationary for several days, changing little in intensity. The low began to slowly acquire tropical characteristics. On May 28, the low pressure system became fully tropical and intensified into Tropical Depression One. One rapidly intensified into Tropical Storm Arthur the next day while located off the Georgia coast. Arthur then entered very favorable conditions and became a hurricane on May 31, the first May hurricane in decades. On June 1, the first day of hurricane season, Arthur rapidly intensified into a category 3 major hurricane while located off the coast of South Carolina. Arthur later acquired its peak intensity, a category 4 hurricane with 145 mph winds and 929 mbar pressure, on June 3. Arthur then slowly weakened while staying close to the Atlantic coast over the next several days before becoming extratropical on June 8. Arthur caused 17 deaths and approximately $1 billion in damage. The name Arthur was retired and replaced with Arnold for 2020.
On June 12, a tropical disturbance developed in the southern Caribbean. On June 14, the NHC decided to name the system Tropical Storm Bertha. The system quickly tracked northward into Mississippi. Bertha became the one of the deadliest tropical storms in Mississippi history, causing 14 deaths. Bertha made landfall with 60 mph winds on June 17. Bertha became extratropical later that day, but still remained fairly strong due to the Brown Ocean Effect. Bertha's remnants dissipated on June 20 near Iowa.
On June 17, the first tropical wave of the season began to move off the west African coast. On June 20, the wave was designated Tropical Depression Three while located about 200 miles southeast of Cape Verde. Shortly after passing to the southwest of Cape Verde, Three was named Tropical Storm Cristobal on June 21. Cristobal slowly intensified over the next few days. On June 24, Cristobal was upgraded to a Category 1 hurricane due to an eye developing and winds of 80 mph. The next day, Cristobal underwent rapid intensification, briefly becoming a category 3 hurricane with winds of 120 mph and a pressure of 958 mbar at peak. Shortly afterward, due to increasing wind shear and drier air, Cristobal began to weaken. Although Cristobal briefly re-intensified into a category 2 hurricane on June 27, more weakening began the next day. Cristobal then weakened to a tropical storm by early on September 29. However, Cristobal re-intensified back into a category 1 hurricane early on June 30 near the Azores, although by this time Cristobal had begun its extratropical transition. Cristobal became extratropical by 11pm that night. Cristobal's remnants made landfall in the southern United Kingdom on July 3 as it merged with another extratropical cyclone, causing one fatality.
Shortly before Cristobal dissipated, a new tropical wave began to move off the coast of Africa on June 30. The wave initially struggled to intensify due to increased wind shear from Cristobal and drier air. However, by early July, conditions began to become more favorable. On July 4, the NHC designated the system Invest 95L and gave it a 40% chance of development within 48 hours. On July 6, the NHC designated the system Tropical Depression Four while located about 300 miles east of the Lesser Antilles. On July 7, Four became Tropical Storm Dolly. Dolly passed over the Lesser Antilles on July 8, causing several fatalities and some minor damage. Shortly after passing the Lesser Antilles, Dolly was briefly upgraded to a category 1 hurricane. The system began to move northwestward after it was downgraded back to a tropical storm. Early on July 11, Dolly was upgraded back to a category 1 hurricane. Dolly's intensification continued, and by late that night, Dolly peaked with 90 mph winds while located east of the Bahamas. There is some debate about whether Dolly briefly became a category 2 hurricane. After passing over the Bahamas, Dolly weakened back to a tropical storm. Dolly took an unusual northwest turn back to the Carolinas. The NHC said that Dolly would likely make landfall as a tropical storm, but on July 13, Dolly briefly re-intensified back into a category 1 hurricane while located southeast of North Carolina. Dolly then made landfall in North Carolina while still a hurricane. Due to the Brown Ocean Effect, Dolly weakened very slowly over land and moved westward into northern Kentucky. It remained fully tropical until it was broken up with the mountains of West Virginia. Overall, Dolly was responsible for 38 fatalities and approximately $1.4 billion in damage.
A weak tropical wave from the African coast merged with a non-tropical cyclone near the Azores. On July 15, the NHC began monitoring the cyclone for possible subtropical or tropical cyclogenesis. On July 18, the NHC named the system Subtropical System Edouard north of the Canary Islands. Its position was similar to that of Hurricane Vince of 2005. On July 19, Edoduard acquired its peak intensity with winds of 60 mph and a minimum pressure of 996 millibars while remaining subtropical. Shortly afterward, Edouard began to lose its subtropical characteristics as it approached Spain. Edouard continued its northeast movement, and made landfall on July 21st as a subtropical depression in Portugal. Edouard then quickly dissipated over land. Edouard caused minimal damage and no fatalities.
In late July, a tropical disturbance formed in the southern Carribean. The wave slowly organized itself, and became Tropical Depression Six on July 28. The next day, Six was upgraded to Tropical Storm Fay. Late on July 29, Fay made landfall in Florida as a 45 mph tropical storm, causing one fatality and minimal damage. Fay then weakened to a tropical depression due to land interaction. Early on July 31, Fay entered more favorable conditions and intensified back into a tropical storm. On August 1, Fay became a category 1 hurricane, and peaked with winds of 85 mph while gaining annular characteristics. Fay then began to weaken the next day, and became extratropical on August 3 while located off the coast of New England. In total, Fay was responsible for two deaths and approximately $10 million in damage.
A large, vigorous tropical wave exited the African Coast on August 3. The NHC monitored the wave for possible development due to low wind shear and warm water temperatures. On August 5, the NHC began issuing advisories on the system as Tropical Depression Seven south of the Cape Verde Islands. Amid continued favorable conditions, Seven intensified into Tropical Storm Gonzalo on August 6 while located just west of the Cape Verde Islands. Gonzalo remained a tropical storm over the next two days while slowly intensifying. On August 8, the NHC found an eye in Gonzalo and upgraded it to a Category 1 hurricane. Intensification continued, and by August 12, Gonzalo acquired Category 5 status on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale briefly with 160 mph winds and 918 mbar pressure. Due to an eyewall replacement cycle, Gonzalo weakened back to a category 4 hurricane later that day. On August 15, Gonzalo passed just east of Bermuda while a strong category 3 hurricane. Slow weakening continued over the next five days due to cooling waters. On August 20, Gonzalo became extratropical while still producing hurricane-force winds. Gonzalo's extratropical remnants brought moderate rains to Ireland and the United Kingdom. Gonzalo, in total, caused 8 fatalities, 7 of which were in Bermuda and one was in Cape Verde.
A westward moving tropical wave developed near the Lesser Antilles in mid-August. By August 15, the system had gained tropical storm force winds, but was not upgraded because it lacked a closed circulation. On August 16, the NHC named the system Tropical Storm Hanna. Hanna initially struggled to intensify, before intensification occurred on August 18, when Hanna intensified into a category 1 hurricane. The next day, Hanna became a category 2 hurricane, but was downgraded to a category 1 briefly later that day. On August 20, Hanna regained its category 2 hurricane status while located east of the Yucatan Peninsula. Late that night, Hanna made landfall in the Peninsula, but caused only minimal damage and no deaths. Hanna then weakened to a strong tropical storm as it approached northern Mexico. Due to stronger wind shear, Hanna could not intensify any more. On August 23, Hanna made landfall near the Texas-Mexico border, still a strong tropical storm, although Hanna may have briefly become a hurricane. Hanna caused one indirect fatality in northern Mexico. Hanna dissipated on August 24 due to dry air in Texas.
On August 22, a new tropical wave exited the African coast. Due to dry air and moderate wind shear, the tropical wave struggled to strengthen, and was not initially expected to develop into a tropical cyclone. By August 26, that had changed, due to improving conditions as the system began to develop a closed circulation. On August 27, the NHC identified a closed circulation and designated the system Tropical Depression Nine. Early the next day, Nine was upgraded into Tropical Storm Isaias while located northeast of the Lesser Antilles. Isaias attained its peak intensity of 50 mph winds briefly on August 29, but as it was caught in a trough, it took an unusual turn and weakened due to increased wind shear. Isaias remained at 40 mph winds for the next few days before it was re-classified as Subtropical Storm Isaias on August 31. The next day, Isaias became extratropical, and was the first storm of the season to not impact land.
On September 1, a tropical wave exited the African coast. On September 3, the system was designated Tropical Depression Ten. Late that night, Ten was upgraded into Tropical Storm Josephine. Josephine slowly intensified before it was upgraded to a hurricane on September 6. Josephine then weakened back to tropical storm status for a day before it was upgraded back to hurricane intensity on September 8. Josephine then intensified into a category 3 hurricane by September 11, before weakening to a tropical storm later that week. Josephine then would undergo rapid deepening and would peak in intensity on September 18 as a strong category 4 with winds of 155 mph off the coast of Virginia. Josephine was one of the northernmost category 4 hurricanes on record. Josephine then weakened to a tropical storm, and on September 22, became extratropical. However, on September 24, Josephine regenerated into a subtropical storm, and later became a category 2 hurricane before making landfall in Spain as an extratropical cyclone. Despite Josephine's unusual antics, it did not cause a single fatality.
In late August, a tropical wave exited the African coast. Due to interaction with Tropical Storm Josephine, the system struggled to develop. Despite Josephine being nearby, the system was named Tropical Storm Kyle on September 5 west of the Lesser Antilles. Kyle did not intensify much for the next two days. However, on September 8, Kyle was upgraded to a hurricane due to a wind speed of 75 mph observed by a Hurricane Hunters aircraft. Kyle then underwent rapid intensification the next day on September 9, becoming a major hurricane will passing east of the Yucatan Peninsula. As Kyle passed over the Yucatan, it weakened to a high-end category 2 hurricane. However, after Kyle passed the Yucatan, Kyle entered an area with no wind shear and water temperatures of 90 degrees Fahrenheit. Rapid intensification resumed, and Kyle's winds explosively deepened to 175 mph, becoming the second category 5 of the season. Kyle acquired its peak intensity on September 11, before it weakened to a category 4 just before landfall in Texas. Kyle then weakened rapidly after landfall on September 12, becoming extratropical on September 13 and dissipating on September 14. Kyle caused catastrophic damage in the state of Texas, causing 868 fatalities between Texas and the Yucatan Peninsula as well as $95 billion in damage - becoming the second-costliest Atlantic hurricane on record. Kyle was the costliest and deadliest storm of the season.
On September 13, a tropical wave exited the African coast. The next day, the wave rapidly organized itself into Tropical Depression Twelve, and eventually Tropical Storm Laura. Laura continued on an unusual northwestward path toward the Cape Verde Islands. At one point, forecasters expected Laura to become the first hurricane in over 100 years to strike Cape Verde, however, dry air limited intensification beyond tropical storm intensity. Although Laura developed an eye and was very close to hurricane intensity, Laura's winds peaked at 70 mph and its pressure peaked at 988 mbar. Laura started to weaken beginning on September 17, and dissipated on September 19 due to cooler waters and wind shear making the storm disorganized. Laura caused minimal damage and no fatalities.
On September 19, yet another tropical wave exited the west coast of Africa. Several days later on September 23, it grew into Tropical Depression Thirteen. The next day, Thirteen was upgraded into Tropical Storm Marco. Marco slowly intensified over the next several days, becoming a category 1 hurricane on September 26. Intensification continued at a moderate pace, as Marco reached Category 3 hurricane status early on September 28. Marco then weakened after this peak intensity. On October 1, Marco became extratropical northeast of Bermuda while still producing hurricane-force winds. Marco caused minimal damage and one indirect fatality in North Carolina from high seas. Marco's remnants weakened before landfall in Western Europe, and did not cause significant impacts there.
On September 25, a tropical wave developed in the Central Caribbean. On September 27, the system acquired tropical storm-force winds, but failed to develop a closed circulation until September 28. On September 28, the storm was named Tropical Storm Nana, skipping over tropical depression status. Nana then quickly intensified into a minimal hurricane late the next day, reaching winds of 75 mph as it made landfall in central Florida, near Clearwater. Nana then quickly weakened over land, becoming a weak tropical depression by October 1. Nana then briefly regained tropical storm intensity that night, but increasing wind shear caused Nana to dissipate on October 2. Nana caused moderate damage in central Florida, including some minor damage at Walt Disney World Resort. The Winnie the Pooh ride failed to function due to minor damage from Nana, and was closed for refurbishment for 3 months. In total, Nana caused 12 deaths and $60 million in damage.
On October 2, the NHC began monitoring an Upper-Level low south of Bermuda. The low slowly moved northward, and started to improve in organization. On October 4, the NHC designated the low Subtropical Depression Fifteen just southwest of Bermuda. Fifteen was then upgraded to Subtropical Storm Omar the next day. Omar then became fully tropical and reached its peak intensity on October 6. Omar then started to weaken, and became extratropical on October 8.
A tropical wave exited the African coast on October 8. The wave rapidly organized itself into Tropical Depression Sixteen on October 10. Sixteen slowly intensified into Tropical Storm Paulette on October 12. Paulette initially struggled to intensify due to dry air from the Saharan Air Layer, but as the dry air subsided, Paulette began to intensify. On October 15, Paulette intensified from a tropical storm with 70 mph winds to a category 2 hurricane with winds of 100 mph, skipping category 1 hurricane status. Paulette peaked in intensity on October 16 with winds of 125 mph and a minimum pressure of 947 mbar. Paulette then became one of the southernmost major hurricanes on record. However, increasing wind shear caused Paulette to weaken to a tropical storm by October 18 and a depression late that night. Operationally, Paulette was considered "dissipated" for 6 hours; however, post-analysis shows that the storm retained a closed circulation the entire time. Paulette then re-intensified into a tropical storm on October 20. Paulette was re-classified as a subtropical cyclone the next day as it continued to intensify. Paulette's intensification continued, and on October 22, Paulette reached hurricane intensity while still subtropical - with winds as high as 80 mph. Paulette brushed the coast of Newfoundland while a "subtropical hurricane", causing three fatalities from the damage. In total, Paulette caused $15 million in damage.
On October 16, a non-tropical area of low pressure developed south of Bermuda. It continued to move southward as it acquired tropical characteristics. On October 18, the system was designated Tropical Depression Seventeen while located southeast of the Bahamas. At one point, forecasters expected Rene to make landfall along the United States east coast. However, that did not happen, as Rene took a northerly turn toward the Bahamas on October 20. Rene acquired its peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 60 mph the next day, before weakening due to increasing wind shear and cooler waters. Rene caused a total of 4 fatalities, one of which was in South Carolina and the other 3 were in the Bahamas. In total, Rene caused roughly $5 million in damage.
On October 17, an extratropical low pressure area that had brought heavy rains to North Carolina - as much as 5 inches in Raleigh on October 16 - exited the coast. The low pressure area slowly started to improve in organization. On October 18, the system had gained a rather disorganized closed circulation, but was declared Subtropical Depression Eighteen. Eighteen was initially expected to not strengthen into a tropical or subtropical storm due to colder water temperatures. However, a shift in the jet stream pushed Eighteen into a much more favorable environment, and on October 20, Eighteen was upgraded into Subtropical Storm Sally. Shortly afterward, Sally became fully tropical, and on October 23, Sally gained hurricane-force winds, and a small eye, becoming the 12th hurricane of the season. On October 26, Sally became extratropical with 70 mph winds while located in the open Northern Atlantic ocean. Sally did not cause any damage or deaths.
In mid-October, a tropical wave exited the African coast, but high wind shear and interaction with Hurricane Paulette limited development. The wave was monitored for possible tropical development for several days. The tropical wave remained rather disorganized. On October 24, the system had gained a very weak closed circulation was declared Tropical Depression Nineteen. The next day, Nineteen was upgraded to Tropical Storm Teddy. Teddy briefly peaked with 50 mph winds before increasing wind shear caused the storm to become even more disorganized. At 11:00 AM on October 26, Teddy dissipated into a remnant low pressure area. At this point, Teddy had a very slight, yet unlikely, chance of regeneration in a few days, as most forecasts called for wind shear in the eastern Caribbean to tear the storm apart. On October 29, wind shear decreased, and Tropical Storm Teddy had re-generated. Teddy's organization began to improve as the shear rapidly dissipated, and late on October 30, Teddy was upgraded to a category 1 hurricane. Explosive intensification took place on October 31, with Teddy skipping over category 2 status and becoming a category 3 major hurricane - becoming the eighth record-breaking major hurricane of the season. By the end of that day - Teddy was already a massive, powerful Category 5 hurricane with winds of 165 mph. Early on November 1, Teddy's winds reached 195 mph - an Atlantic record, while its pressure fell to 880 mbar - another Atlantic record. Teddy also became the first November Category 5 Atlantic hurricane since 1932. At this point, Teddy was located off the coast of Florida. Teddy's first two fatalities occurred in Tampa due to extremely high seas of 12 feet. Late on November 1, Teddy made landfall in Alabama as a Category 5 hurricane with winds of 175 mph, and took an unusual northerly path through western Georgia. Teddy began to weaken, and on November 3, became extratropical while located over central Kentucky and producing hurricane-force winds. Teddy's extratropical dissipated on November 5 in northern Michigan. For a storm of Teddy's magnitude, Teddy actually wasn't nearly as bad as many anticipated. Nevertheless, Teddy did still cause 74 fatalities and $15 billion in damage. Over 30 of the deaths were not in the United States.
In early November, an extratropical cyclone developed in the central Atlantic. The system quickly became tropical, and on November 6, it gained a closed circulation and was named Tropical Storm Vicky. Vicky then weakened to a tropical depression at the next advisory, and remained a tropical depression for the next two days before dissipating on November 8. Vicky was only the second storm of the season to the date to not affect land.
In mid-November, a tropical wave developed in the southern Caribbean, while an upper-level low formed east of the Bahamas. The two cyclones merged together, and eventually became a large, organized cyclone. On November 22, the system was named Subtropical Storm Wilfred. At the second advisory, Wilfred became fully tropical. Due to record warm water temperatures, Wilfred began to intensify on November 24, becoming a hurricane early that day, and attaining a peak intensity with winds of 110 mph on November 25, nearly becoming a major hurricane. Cooler sea surface temperatures made Wilfred slightly disorganized, although the system remained strong. Originally, it was expected that Wilfred would turn out to sea, but an unusual movement in the jet stream changed Wilfred's trajectory, directing it to New Jersey. On November 26, Governor Chris Christie declared a State of Emergency for the entire state of New Jersey, for the impending hurricane. Wilfred made landfall on Thanksgiving Day, November 27, as a low-end Category 2 hurricane with maximum sustained winds up to 100 mph. However, Wilfred's pressure was at its lowest right before landfall - 958 mbar. Wilfred caused 42 fatalities, most of which were in New Jersey, and over $4 billion in damage. Wilfred is known as the "storm that ruined Thanksgiving". Wilfred dissipated over Pennsylvania on November 28, Black Friday. Wilfred also caused a slowing of Black Friday sales throughout the Northeast, resulting in the least Black Friday revenue since the 1970s.
On December 2, a shortwave disturbance spawned Tropical Depression Twenty-Two in the central Atlantic. Twenty-Two became Tropical Storm Alpha the next day, after the season had officially ended. On December 5, Alpha underwent rapid intensification, reaching category 3 hurricane status - becoming the first Atlantic December major hurricane. It also extended the record of major hurricanes to 9. On December 6, Alpha began to weaken, and on December 8, Alpha dissipated shortly after its extratropical transition.
On December 18, a tropical wave exited the African coast. Due to record warm waters and unusually low wind shear, the NHC began monitoring the system for development, giving it a 20% chance of development within the next 5 days. Surprisingly, on December 20, the system rapidly became Tropical Depression Twenty-Three. The next day, Twenty-Three was upgraded to Tropical Storm Beta. On December 22, Beta rapidly intensified into a category 1 hurricane. Beta became an annular hurricane late that night and changed little in intensity over the next several days. Beta acquired its peak intensity early on December 25 - Christmas Day - with maximum sustained winds of 90 mph, nearly becoming a category 2 hurricane. Beta began to weaken on December 26, and became a tropical storm on December 27. Beta then became post-tropical on December 28.
On Christmas Eve, the NHC began monitoring an upper-level low northwest of the Lesser Antilles for possible tropical or subtropical cyclongenesis. The upper-level low was initially given a 10% chance of development within the next 5 days. Unusually low wind shear and record warm temperatures aided in the storm's development. On December 27, the NHC designated the low pressure area Subtropical Depression Twenty-Four while located north of Hispaniola. Later that evening, Twenty-Four was named Subtropical Storm Gamma. Gamma remained a minimal subtropical storm for two days, before rapidly intensifying into a strong subtropical storm. The NHC gave Gamma a 60% chance of becoming fully tropical, even noting that hurricane status was not out of the question. However, Gamma remained a subtropical storm and did not reach hurricane intensity. On December 31, Gamma made landfall on the coast of Georgia, near Savannah, as a strong subtropical storm. Gamma became extratropical the next day while located over Tennessee. Gamma caused one fatality in central Georgia. On January 1, New Year's Day 2015, Gamma merged with a winter storm, creating a powerful winter storm with an "eye". Gamma took an unusual northeastern track through Ohio and eventually New Jersey. Gamma's remnants even dumped 3 feet of snow in northern Kentucky. Gamma's remnants dissipated on January 3, 2015. Gamma was the third storm in history to span two calendar years. Gamma was also the record third December Atlantic tropical or subtropical cyclone.
The following were the names used in the 2014 Atlantic hurricane season. It is the same as the list used in the 2008 Atlantic hurricane season with the exception of Gustav, Ike, and Paloma, which were retired. All of the 21 regular names were used this season:
In addition to the 21 regular names, the NHC used 3 Greek Letter names this season:
In April 2015, the WMO decided to retire a record-tying five names this season: Arthur, Dolly, Kyle, Teddy, and Wilfred. They were replaced by the following names: Arnold, Darlene, Kurt, Theodore, and Wyatt.